The Vitamin D Radio

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a necessary protein that is turned on by calciferol. It is involved in maintaining the mineral equilibrium in the body and leading to growth and hair creation. It also interacts with adipose structure.

VDRs are expressed inside the parathyroid glands, intestines, epithelial skin cells, and many the immune system cell types. They are considered to regulate the intestinal ingestion of calcium, and to mediate some of the effects of vitamin D on bone protection. Fortunately they are thought to play an important function in metabolic process.

VDR is found in a variety of flesh, including epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and skin keratinocytes. However , they are really most widely stated in the kidneys and bones.

The VDR is phosphorylated in serine elements by a couple of protein kinases. These kinases include PKA and PKC. The effect of kinases in VDR is ligand primarily based. Specifically, the phosphorylation of Ser51 by simply PKC lowered VDR nuclear localization. Likewise, phosphorylation of Ser182 by PKA reduced RXR heterodimerization.

Research have shown that VDRs can be found in a part of glial cells, specifically in oligodendrocytes in white matter. Although VDR immunoreactivity has been diagnosed in a number of glial cell lines, no proof has been provided that the existence of VDR in glia is a cause for increased risk of tumorigenesis.

Additionally , VDR appears to be present in a subset of neurons. Actually nuclear staining has been has confirmed in man cortex and glial cell-lines.

A large 220-kDa protein is found in human major glioblastoma cells. In contrast, a small recombinant VDR-like protein was produced.


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